Reference 5.1


Fouillee Commentary

1. ἂν ἐφαίνετο, aurait paru. L'imparfait fait ici fonction de l'aoriste ou du plus-que-parfait, comme dans Thucydide, I, 9, 3: οὐκ ἄν οὖν νήσων...ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν. On sous-entend ici εἴ δεινὸν ἦν.

2. ἑαυτούς...ἑαυτῶν sont les équivalents de ἡμάς αὐτοὺς, ἡμῶν αὐτῶν.

3. ἀπαιδεύτου, celui qui n'est pas instruit dans la philosophie. Voy. Disc. III, 19, 6.

Thurot Commentary

None

Greek

ταράσσει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐ τὰ πράγματα, ἀλλὰ τὰ περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων δόγματα· οἷον ὁ θάνατος οὐδὲν δεινόν (ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο), ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τοῦ θανάτου, διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν. ὅταν οὖν ἐμποδιζώμεθα ἣ ταρασσώμεθα ἣ λυπώμεθα, μηδέποτε ἄλλον αἰτιώμεθα, ἀλλ' ἑαυτούς, τοῦτ' ἔστι τὰ ἑαυτῶν δόγματα. ἀπαιδεύτου ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ' οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς· ἠργμένου παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ· πεπαιδευμένου τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

English

Men are disturbed not by things, but by the views which they take of things. Thus death is nothing terrible, else it would have appeared so to Socrates. But the terror consists in our notion of death, that it is terrible. When, therefore, we are hindered, or disturbed, or grieved, let us never impute it to others, but to ourselves; that is, to our own views. It is the action of an uninstructed person to reproach others for his own misfortunes; of one entering upon instruction, to reproach himself; and of one perfectly instructed, to reproach neither others nor himself.

DCC Notes

ταράσσει: the neuter plural subject (τὰ πράγματα) takes a singular verb, as usual (G. 496; S. 958).

τὰ περὶ ... δόγματα: supply ταράσσει from the previous clause. Dogmata is another key term: our opinions and assessments about life, goodness, badness, etc., which condition all our mental states, including all emotions (Smith 2014, 94 n. 6).

ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο: unfulfilled possibility, “since it would also (καὶ) have appeared (so) to Socrates.” The protasis is implied: “if death were terrible.” Note that the imperfect indicative can be used to denote an unfulfilled action in the present or, as here, in the past (G. 649; S. 2292.1).

Σωκράτης: on Socrates’ significant influence on the Stoics and Epictetus, see the Introduction, Predecessors.

ἐμποδιζώμεθα ... ταρασσώμεθα ... λυπώμεθα: 1 pl. pres. pass. subj. in a temporal clause, equivalent to a conditional + imperative construction

αἰτιώμεθα: > αἰτιάομαι, 1 pl. pres. mid. subj.; hortatory subj. (G. 472; S. 1797) with μή as the negative (here μηδέποτε): “let us never blame,” “we must never blame.”

ἑαυτούς, ἑαυτῶν: Epictetus at times uses the third plural reflexive form of the pronoun where we would expect first person pronouns (S. 1230). Translate “ourselves” and “our” for the sake of consistency in English.

τουτέστι: “that is,” “that is to say”

ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν: supply ἐστί. τὸ ... ἐγκαλεῖν: articular infinitive (G. 574–575; S. 2025): “blaming others is the act.”

ἐφ' οἷς: “at times which,” i.e “when.” The antecedent has been omitted (G. 614; S. 2509).

ἠργμένου: > ἄρχω, perf. mid. part., gen. masc. sg. “of one beginning” (philophical studies).

πεπαιδευμένου: perf. mid./pass part.; “of the one who has been educated” = “of the one who has assimilated the philosophical principles.”

τὸ ἑαυτῷ ... τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ: supply ἐγκαλεῖν from the previous sentence, and ἔργον ἐστί as the predicate in both clauses: “blaming oneself is the act of (one) beginning to be educated, etc.”

DCC Vocab

ταράσσω, ταράξω, ἐτάραξα, to trouble, disturb

δόγμα, -ατος, τό, opinion, belief, judgment, decision; philosophical principle

διότι, since, because, that

ἐμποδίζω, -ποδιῶ, -επόδισα, to hinder, frustrate

λυπέω, λυπήσω, ἐλύπησα, to grieve, to vex

μηδέποτε, never

αἰτιάομαι, αἰτιάσομαι, ᾐτιασάμην, to blame

ἀπαίδευτος, -ον, uneducated

ἐγκαλέω, ἐγκαλῶ, ἐνεκάλεσα, to rebuke, reproach + dat.

παιδεύω, παιδεύσω, ἐπαίδευσα, to teach, educate

Schenkl Cross-references

I, 19, 7 sq.; II, 1, 13; II, 1, 15; I, 11, 35

Boter Cross-references

Placeholder text

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Fouillee Commentary

1. ἂν ἐφαίνετο, aurait paru. L'imparfait fait ici fonction de l'aoriste ou du plus-que-parfait, comme dans Thucydide, I, 9, 3: οὐκ ἄν οὖν νήσων...ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν. On sous-entend ici εἴ δεινὸν ἦν.

2. ἑαυτούς...ἑαυτῶν sont les équivalents de ἡμάς αὐτοὺς, ἡμῶν αὐτῶν.

3. ἀπαιδεύτου, celui qui n'est pas instruit dans la philosophie. Voy. Disc. III, 19, 6.

Thurot Commentary

None

Greek

ταράσσει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐ τὰ πράγματα, ἀλλὰ τὰ περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων δόγματα· οἷον ὁ θάνατος οὐδὲν δεινόν (ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο), ἀλλὰ τὸ δόγμα τὸ περὶ τοῦ θανάτου, διότι δεινόν, ἐκεῖνο τὸ δεινόν ἐστιν. ὅταν οὖν ἐμποδιζώμεθα ἣ ταρασσώμεθα ἣ λυπώμεθα, μηδέποτε ἄλλον αἰτιώμεθα, ἀλλ' ἑαυτούς, τοῦτ' ἔστι τὰ ἑαυτῶν δόγματα. ἀπαιδεύτου ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐφ' οἷς αὐτὸς πράσσει κακῶς· ἠργμένου παιδεύεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτῷ· πεπαιδευμένου τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ.

English

Men are disturbed not by things, but by the views which they take of things. Thus death is nothing terrible, else it would have appeared so to Socrates. But the terror consists in our notion of death, that it is terrible. When, therefore, we are hindered, or disturbed, or grieved, let us never impute it to others, but to ourselves; that is, to our own views. It is the action of an uninstructed person to reproach others for his own misfortunes; of one entering upon instruction, to reproach himself; and of one perfectly instructed, to reproach neither others nor himself.

DCC Notes

ταράσσει: the neuter plural subject (τὰ πράγματα) takes a singular verb, as usual (G. 496; S. 958).

τὰ περὶ ... δόγματα: supply ταράσσει from the previous clause. Dogmata is another key term: our opinions and assessments about life, goodness, badness, etc., which condition all our mental states, including all emotions (Smith 2014, 94 n. 6).

ἐπεὶ καὶ Σωκράτει ἂν ἐφαίνετο: unfulfilled possibility, “since it would also (καὶ) have appeared (so) to Socrates.” The protasis is implied: “if death were terrible.” Note that the imperfect indicative can be used to denote an unfulfilled action in the present or, as here, in the past (G. 649; S. 2292.1).

Σωκράτης: on Socrates’ significant influence on the Stoics and Epictetus, see the Introduction, Predecessors.

ἐμποδιζώμεθα ... ταρασσώμεθα ... λυπώμεθα: 1 pl. pres. pass. subj. in a temporal clause, equivalent to a conditional + imperative construction

αἰτιώμεθα: > αἰτιάομαι, 1 pl. pres. mid. subj.; hortatory subj. (G. 472; S. 1797) with μή as the negative (here μηδέποτε): “let us never blame,” “we must never blame.”

ἑαυτούς, ἑαυτῶν: Epictetus at times uses the third plural reflexive form of the pronoun where we would expect first person pronouns (S. 1230). Translate “ourselves” and “our” for the sake of consistency in English.

τουτέστι: “that is,” “that is to say”

ἔργον τὸ ἄλλοις ἐγκαλεῖν: supply ἐστί. τὸ ... ἐγκαλεῖν: articular infinitive (G. 574–575; S. 2025): “blaming others is the act.”

ἐφ' οἷς: “at times which,” i.e “when.” The antecedent has been omitted (G. 614; S. 2509).

ἠργμένου: > ἄρχω, perf. mid. part., gen. masc. sg. “of one beginning” (philophical studies).

πεπαιδευμένου: perf. mid./pass part.; “of the one who has been educated” = “of the one who has assimilated the philosophical principles.”

τὸ ἑαυτῷ ... τὸ μήτε ἄλλῳ μήτε ἑαυτῷ: supply ἐγκαλεῖν from the previous sentence, and ἔργον ἐστί as the predicate in both clauses: “blaming oneself is the act of (one) beginning to be educated, etc.”

DCC Vocab

ταράσσω, ταράξω, ἐτάραξα, to trouble, disturb

δόγμα, -ατος, τό, opinion, belief, judgment, decision; philosophical principle

διότι, since, because, that

ἐμποδίζω, -ποδιῶ, -επόδισα, to hinder, frustrate

λυπέω, λυπήσω, ἐλύπησα, to grieve, to vex

μηδέποτε, never

αἰτιάομαι, αἰτιάσομαι, ᾐτιασάμην, to blame

ἀπαίδευτος, -ον, uneducated

ἐγκαλέω, ἐγκαλῶ, ἐνεκάλεσα, to rebuke, reproach + dat.

παιδεύω, παιδεύσω, ἐπαίδευσα, to teach, educate

Schenkl Cross-references

I, 19, 7 sq.; II, 1, 13; II, 1, 15; I, 11, 35

Boter Cross-references

Placeholder text

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