Reference 1.5


Fouillee Commentary

1. μελέτα, exerce-toi.

2. ἐπιλέγειν, dire a propos de. Voyez plus bas, ch. III, IV, IX, XII, L.

3. οὐ πάντως, pas tout à fait. La négation porte sur le mot qui la suit immédiatement. Πάντως οὐ signifie nullement (Homère, Il. VI. I, 450, etc.).

4. τὸ φαινόμενον, ce que tu représentes.

5. τούτῳ…, πότερον, la règle qui fait reconnaitre si.

6. διότι est synonyme de ὅτι, qui sert souvent à annoncer une proposition au style direct.

Thurot Commentary

2. V. les Entretiens d'Épictète, lI, Xvi:

Greek

εὐθὺς οὖν πάσῃ φαντασίᾳ τραχείᾳ μελέτα ἐπιλέγειν ὅτι ‘φαντασία εἶ καὶ οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον.’ ἔπειτα ἐξέταζε αὐτὴν καὶ δοκίμαζε τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις, πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ καὶ μάλιστα, πότερον περὶ τὰ ἐφ' ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἣ περὶ τὰ οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν· κἂν περί τι τῶν οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν ᾖ, πρόχειρον ἔστω τὸ διότι ‘οὐδὲν πρὸς ἐμέ’

English

Seek at once, therefore, to be able to say to every unpleasing semblance, " You are but a semblance and by no means the real thing." And then examine it by those rules which you have; and first and chiefly, by this: whether it concerns the things which are within our own power, or those which are not; and if it concerns anything beyond our power, be prepared to say that it is nothing to you.

DCC Notes

Epictetus ends this opening chapter by encouraging you to evaluate your impressions (φαντασίαι) to determine whether they are about things under your control or not. Epictetus tells us that we must practice this (μελετᾶν; the noun form is μελέτη; elsewhere he speaks of this practice as ἄσκησις). For more on these concepts, see the Introduction, Assent.

μελέτα: > μελετάω, 2 sg. pres. act. imper. Note the accent; for the imperative, the accent falls on the penult: μελέτα+ε = μελέτα; for 3 sg. ind., the circumflex would appear on the ultima with the iota subscript: μελετά- + ει = μελετᾷ (G. 313; S. 53 and 385).

φαντασία: “impression”: The term covers not only our perceptions (“Here is money”), but also judgments about the perceptions (“Money is a good thing” and “One should pursue money.”) If someone assents (συγκατατίθεσθαι) to the latter judgment (the expression of a desire), then it will generate an impulse, and the person will act on this desire. For more on impressions, see the Introduction, Assent.

οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον: “not at all what you appear to be” (LSJ φαίνομαι II).

τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις: “with these rules which you have.” Here, as often, the relative pronoun has been attracted into the case of its antecedent (κανόσι > κανών). If the relative had not been attracted into the case of the antecedent, the phrase would read: τοῖς κανόσι οὓς ἔχεις. It is especially common for the accusative case to be attracted into the genitive or dative (G. 613b; S. 2522).

κἄν: = καί + ἐάν (“and if” or “even if”), a very common contraction in this work

ᾖ: > εἰμί, 3 sg. pres. act. subj. in a conditional + imperative construction.

ἔστω: > εἰμί, 3 sg. pres. act. imper.

τό διότι: “the reason/statement that”

πρόχειρον ... ἐμέ: (literally) “let the statement be at hand that it (the presentation) is nothing to me.” That is, “be ready to recognize that it has nothing to do with you” (Smith 2014).

DCC Vocab

φαντασία,-ας, ἡ, impression, appearance, perception

τραχύς, -εῖα, -ύ, rough, harsh

μελετάω, -ήσω, to practice, pursue, exercise

ἐπιλέγω, -λέξω, -ελεξα, to say in addition

ἐξετάζω, ἐξετάσω, ἐξήτασα, to examine closely

δοκιμάζω, -άσω, ἐδοκίμασα, to test, put to the test, make trial of, scrutinize

κανών, -όνος, ὁ, standard, criterion

πρόχειρος, -ον, at hand, readily accessible

διότι, since, because, that

Schenkl Cross-references

II, 18, 24 (III, 12, 15); cf. I, 27, 1; cf. III, 3, 14; cf. iv, 4, 39; III, 16, 15

Boter Cross-references

Placeholder text

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Fouillee Commentary

1. μελέτα, exerce-toi.

2. ἐπιλέγειν, dire a propos de. Voyez plus bas, ch. III, IV, IX, XII, L.

3. οὐ πάντως, pas tout à fait. La négation porte sur le mot qui la suit immédiatement. Πάντως οὐ signifie nullement (Homère, Il. VI. I, 450, etc.).

4. τὸ φαινόμενον, ce que tu représentes.

5. τούτῳ…, πότερον, la règle qui fait reconnaitre si.

6. διότι est synonyme de ὅτι, qui sert souvent à annoncer une proposition au style direct.

Thurot Commentary

2. V. les Entretiens d'Épictète, lI, Xvi:

Greek

εὐθὺς οὖν πάσῃ φαντασίᾳ τραχείᾳ μελέτα ἐπιλέγειν ὅτι ‘φαντασία εἶ καὶ οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον.’ ἔπειτα ἐξέταζε αὐτὴν καὶ δοκίμαζε τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις, πρώτῳ δὲ τούτῳ καὶ μάλιστα, πότερον περὶ τὰ ἐφ' ἡμῖν ἐστιν ἣ περὶ τὰ οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν· κἂν περί τι τῶν οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν ᾖ, πρόχειρον ἔστω τὸ διότι ‘οὐδὲν πρὸς ἐμέ’

English

Seek at once, therefore, to be able to say to every unpleasing semblance, " You are but a semblance and by no means the real thing." And then examine it by those rules which you have; and first and chiefly, by this: whether it concerns the things which are within our own power, or those which are not; and if it concerns anything beyond our power, be prepared to say that it is nothing to you.

DCC Notes

Epictetus ends this opening chapter by encouraging you to evaluate your impressions (φαντασίαι) to determine whether they are about things under your control or not. Epictetus tells us that we must practice this (μελετᾶν; the noun form is μελέτη; elsewhere he speaks of this practice as ἄσκησις). For more on these concepts, see the Introduction, Assent.

μελέτα: > μελετάω, 2 sg. pres. act. imper. Note the accent; for the imperative, the accent falls on the penult: μελέτα+ε = μελέτα; for 3 sg. ind., the circumflex would appear on the ultima with the iota subscript: μελετά- + ει = μελετᾷ (G. 313; S. 53 and 385).

φαντασία: “impression”: The term covers not only our perceptions (“Here is money”), but also judgments about the perceptions (“Money is a good thing” and “One should pursue money.”) If someone assents (συγκατατίθεσθαι) to the latter judgment (the expression of a desire), then it will generate an impulse, and the person will act on this desire. For more on impressions, see the Introduction, Assent.

οὐ πάντως τὸ φαινόμενον: “not at all what you appear to be” (LSJ φαίνομαι II).

τοῖς κανόσι τούτοις οἷς ἔχεις: “with these rules which you have.” Here, as often, the relative pronoun has been attracted into the case of its antecedent (κανόσι > κανών). If the relative had not been attracted into the case of the antecedent, the phrase would read: τοῖς κανόσι οὓς ἔχεις. It is especially common for the accusative case to be attracted into the genitive or dative (G. 613b; S. 2522).

κἄν: = καί + ἐάν (“and if” or “even if”), a very common contraction in this work

ᾖ: > εἰμί, 3 sg. pres. act. subj. in a conditional + imperative construction.

ἔστω: > εἰμί, 3 sg. pres. act. imper.

τό διότι: “the reason/statement that”

πρόχειρον ... ἐμέ: (literally) “let the statement be at hand that it (the presentation) is nothing to me.” That is, “be ready to recognize that it has nothing to do with you” (Smith 2014).

DCC Vocab

φαντασία,-ας, ἡ, impression, appearance, perception

τραχύς, -εῖα, -ύ, rough, harsh

μελετάω, -ήσω, to practice, pursue, exercise

ἐπιλέγω, -λέξω, -ελεξα, to say in addition

ἐξετάζω, ἐξετάσω, ἐξήτασα, to examine closely

δοκιμάζω, -άσω, ἐδοκίμασα, to test, put to the test, make trial of, scrutinize

κανών, -όνος, ὁ, standard, criterion

πρόχειρος, -ον, at hand, readily accessible

διότι, since, because, that

Schenkl Cross-references

II, 18, 24 (III, 12, 15); cf. I, 27, 1; cf. III, 3, 14; cf. iv, 4, 39; III, 16, 15

Boter Cross-references

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