Reference 1.1


Fouillee Commentary

1. Τῶν ὄντων est rapporté par Simplicius seulement à ce qui est en nous et en rapport direct avec nos (περὶ ἡμᾶς) parce qu'autrement il n’y aurait pas de proportion entre les deux membres de la dichotomie, si l'univers entier était opposé à l'homme. Mais rien n'indique cette restriction.

2. ἡμέτερα ἔργα, nos opérations, c'est-à-dire les opérations de notre âme.

3. δόξαι, ainsi placé entre κτῆσις et ἀρχαὶ, ne peut signifier que témoignages de considération, comme dans Démosthène, de Corona, 80, ἔππινοι, δόξαι, τιμαί, et non, comme l'entend Simplicius, opinion bonne ou mauvaise que les autres ont de nous.

Thurot Commentary

1.ὑπόληψις, l'opinion qu'on se fait sur une chose, ce qu’on soupçonne de cette chose. — L'opinion dépend de nous parce que nous pouvons suspendre notre jugement. C’est la théorie de Descartes.

2.ὁρμή, l'élan de la volonté vers les objets, élan que nous pouvons diriger ou suspendre. C’est quelque chose d'analogue à la motion de Maine de Biran, qui est le commencement de l'exécution volontaire.

3.ὄρεξις, le désir. Nous pouvons le détourner des choses qui ne dépendent pas de nous, pour le tourner vers celles qui dépendent de nous.

4.ἔκκλισις, le mouvement par lequel on s'écarte d'un objet, et que la volonté peut encore réprimer.

Greek

τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ' ἡμῖν, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν. ἐφ' ἡμῖν μὲν ὑπόληψις, ὁρμή, ὄρεξις, ἔκκλισις καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα ἡμέτερα ἔργα· οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν δὲ τὸ σῶμα, ἡ κτῆσις, δόξαι, ἀρχαὶ καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα οὐχ ἡμέτερα ἔργα.

English

There are things which are within our power, and there are things which are beyond our power. Within our power are opinion, aim, desire, aversion, and, in one word, whatever affairs are our own. Beyond our power are body, property, reputation, office, and, in one word, whatever are not properly our own affairs.

DCC Notes

τῶν ὄντων: “of existent things” or “of things which exist”; to Stoics, for something to exist it must be corporeal. The Stoics even considered the soul corporeal (albeit of very refined πνεῦμα), which earlier philosophers regarded as incorporeal. The only incorporeals which they admitted were place, void, time, and the λεκτόν (lekton, pl. lekta), a “sayable,” which includes everything from a subject or predicate to statements.

τὰ μέν ἐστιν: a neut. pl. subject, regarded as a collective or singular idea, takes a singular verb (G. 496; S. 958).

ἐφ᾽ἡμῖν: “in or under our control,” “up to us,” a phrase that recurs frequently in this work (LSJ ἐπί B.I.g)

ὅσα ... ἔργα: supply ἐστι for both clauses ending with ἔργα.

ὁρμή: “impulse” is directed toward τὰ καθήκοντα (“appropriate actions”). See Introduction, Positive and Negative Impulse.

ὄρεξις: “desire” is directed toward the good or a supposed good.

ἔκκλισις: “aversion” is the avoidance of an evil or a supposed evil.

ἑνί λόγῳ: “in a word,” “in short”

δόξαι: “reputation,” “the opinion which others have of you,” usually good, so the meaning shades into “honor,” “glory” (LSJ δόξα III).

ἀρχαί: “political offices,” “magistracies,” (LSJ ἀρχή II.3) things highly coveted by members of the Roman elite.

DCC Vocab

ὑπόληψις, -εως, ἡ: opinion, assumption

ὁρμή, -ῆς, ἡ, impulse

ὄρεξις, -εως, ἡ, desire

ἔκκλισις, -εως, ἡ, aversion, avoidance

κτῆσις, -εως, ἡ, possession, property, property

δόξα,-ης, ἡ, opinion; reputation

Schenkl Cross-references

I, 22, 10; cf. II, 14, 22; cf. 111, 26,34

Boter Cross-references

Placeholder text

Comments
DuxVictorum says:

I find it very interesting to reflect on how he includes our physical body in the things that are not fully our own. This sits awkwardly with modern notions of autonomy which emphasizes that nothing indeed could be more my own than my body. But in terms of seeing the body as something outside of our full control and mastery, Epictetus is right.

Fouillee Commentary

1. Τῶν ὄντων est rapporté par Simplicius seulement à ce qui est en nous et en rapport direct avec nos (περὶ ἡμᾶς) parce qu'autrement il n’y aurait pas de proportion entre les deux membres de la dichotomie, si l'univers entier était opposé à l'homme. Mais rien n'indique cette restriction.

2. ἡμέτερα ἔργα, nos opérations, c'est-à-dire les opérations de notre âme.

3. δόξαι, ainsi placé entre κτῆσις et ἀρχαὶ, ne peut signifier que témoignages de considération, comme dans Démosthène, de Corona, 80, ἔππινοι, δόξαι, τιμαί, et non, comme l'entend Simplicius, opinion bonne ou mauvaise que les autres ont de nous.

Thurot Commentary

1.ὑπόληψις, l'opinion qu'on se fait sur une chose, ce qu’on soupçonne de cette chose. — L'opinion dépend de nous parce que nous pouvons suspendre notre jugement. C’est la théorie de Descartes.

2.ὁρμή, l'élan de la volonté vers les objets, élan que nous pouvons diriger ou suspendre. C’est quelque chose d'analogue à la motion de Maine de Biran, qui est le commencement de l'exécution volontaire.

3.ὄρεξις, le désir. Nous pouvons le détourner des choses qui ne dépendent pas de nous, pour le tourner vers celles qui dépendent de nous.

4.ἔκκλισις, le mouvement par lequel on s'écarte d'un objet, et que la volonté peut encore réprimer.

Greek

τῶν ὄντων τὰ μέν ἐστιν ἐφ' ἡμῖν, τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν. ἐφ' ἡμῖν μὲν ὑπόληψις, ὁρμή, ὄρεξις, ἔκκλισις καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα ἡμέτερα ἔργα· οὐκ ἐφ' ἡμῖν δὲ τὸ σῶμα, ἡ κτῆσις, δόξαι, ἀρχαὶ καὶ ἑνὶ λόγῳ ὅσα οὐχ ἡμέτερα ἔργα.

English

There are things which are within our power, and there are things which are beyond our power. Within our power are opinion, aim, desire, aversion, and, in one word, whatever affairs are our own. Beyond our power are body, property, reputation, office, and, in one word, whatever are not properly our own affairs.

DCC Notes

τῶν ὄντων: “of existent things” or “of things which exist”; to Stoics, for something to exist it must be corporeal. The Stoics even considered the soul corporeal (albeit of very refined πνεῦμα), which earlier philosophers regarded as incorporeal. The only incorporeals which they admitted were place, void, time, and the λεκτόν (lekton, pl. lekta), a “sayable,” which includes everything from a subject or predicate to statements.

τὰ μέν ἐστιν: a neut. pl. subject, regarded as a collective or singular idea, takes a singular verb (G. 496; S. 958).

ἐφ᾽ἡμῖν: “in or under our control,” “up to us,” a phrase that recurs frequently in this work (LSJ ἐπί B.I.g)

ὅσα ... ἔργα: supply ἐστι for both clauses ending with ἔργα.

ὁρμή: “impulse” is directed toward τὰ καθήκοντα (“appropriate actions”). See Introduction, Positive and Negative Impulse.

ὄρεξις: “desire” is directed toward the good or a supposed good.

ἔκκλισις: “aversion” is the avoidance of an evil or a supposed evil.

ἑνί λόγῳ: “in a word,” “in short”

δόξαι: “reputation,” “the opinion which others have of you,” usually good, so the meaning shades into “honor,” “glory” (LSJ δόξα III).

ἀρχαί: “political offices,” “magistracies,” (LSJ ἀρχή II.3) things highly coveted by members of the Roman elite.

DCC Vocab

ὑπόληψις, -εως, ἡ: opinion, assumption

ὁρμή, -ῆς, ἡ, impulse

ὄρεξις, -εως, ἡ, desire

ἔκκλισις, -εως, ἡ, aversion, avoidance

κτῆσις, -εως, ἡ, possession, property, property

δόξα,-ης, ἡ, opinion; reputation

Schenkl Cross-references

I, 22, 10; cf. II, 14, 22; cf. 111, 26,34

Boter Cross-references

Placeholder text

Comments
DuxVictorum says:

I find it very interesting to reflect on how he includes our physical body in the things that are not fully our own. This sits awkwardly with modern notions of autonomy which emphasizes that nothing indeed could be more my own than my body. But in terms of seeing the body as something outside of our full control and mastery, Epictetus is right.